In what may be the final major Hmong immigration to America, 15,000 refugees living on the grounds of a Buddhist temple in Thailand left in 2004 as part of a U.S. resettlement program. Not all of the Hmong living there made it onto the registration list. Neither did thousands of Hmong living as illegal immigrants elsewhere in Thailand. Many of them are former soldiers or relatives of soldiers who fought for the U.S. in the CIA's secret war in Laos. They are terrified of being sent back to a land where they are considered enemies.

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